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– Souda Bay is a bay and natural harbour near the town of Souda on the northwest coast of the Greek island of Crete. The bay is about 15 km long and only two to four km wide, and a natural harbour. It is formed between the Akrotiri peninsula and Cape Drapano, and runs west to east, the bay is overlooked on both sides by hills, with a relatively low and narrow isthmus in the west near Chania. Near the mouth of Souda bay, between the Akrotiri and the town of Kalives, there is a group of islands with Venetian fortifications. The largest island is Souda Island, giving its name to the bay, Souda Bay is now a popular tourist destination although there are no real public beaches due to the presence of the Crete Naval Station. Villages such as Megala Chorafia and Kalives afford fine views of the bay, there have been port facilities on the bay since ancient times, previously serving the city of Aptera.
Aptera was founded in the 7th Century BC and was an important city during the ancient and it was destroyed by the Saracens in the 820s AD. The nearest large ancient city was Kydonia, which flourished in the Minoan era on Crete, moreover, the Venetians occupied the area in 1207. In 1571 an Ottoman military force landed at Souda and caused destruction in the Chania area. The Venetians fortified Souda Island between 1570 and 1573, in order to protect the area from Ottoman raiders and pirates, however, Souda Bay remained a pirate infested area during the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries.
The Venetians managed to hold on to the islands within Souda Bay until 1715. In 1822 an Egyptian army of approximately 10,000 under Hassan Pasha landed at Souda to defeat the Cretan Revolution of 1821, after the Cretan Revolution of 1866–69, the Ottomans built fortresses at Aptera and Kalami, barracks, a military hospital and a naval base. They also built the town of Souda at the head of the bay, the fortress at Kalami is still in use as prisons. The naval base was inaugurated in 1872, in the presence of Sultan Abdul Aziz. In the period of the semi-independent Cretan State the area attracted international interest, the first High Commissioner, Prince George of Greece, disembarked at Souda Bay on December 9,1898.
The church of Saint Nicholas was built during this period, in 1913, events marking the union of Crete with Greece took place on Souda Island. On February 1 the metallic Ottoman flag, the last symbol of Ottoman rule, was removed and replaced by the Greek flag on May 1, also the ruined chapel was rebuilt and dedicated to Saint George. In 1916 the British liner SS Minnewaska, requisitioned by the British Army as a troops carrier, after 1923 the area was used as an Hellenic Army base, housing the artillery units of 5th Infantry Division 2. – Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, 88th-largest island in the world and the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete, the capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065, Crete forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits. It was once the centre of the Minoan civilization, which is regarded as the earliest recorded civilization in Europe. The island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC, repeated later in Neo-Assyrian records and it was also known in ancient Egyptian as Keftiu, strongly suggesting a similar Minoan name for the island. The current name of Crete is thought to be first attested in Mycenaean Greek texts written in Linear B, through the words 3.
– Bob Hope KBE, KC.SG, KSS was an American comedian, vaudevillian, actor, singer, dancer, athlete, centenarian and author. With a career spanning nearly 80 years, Hope appeared in over 70 feature films and short films, in addition to hosting the Academy Awards 19 times, he appeared in many stage productions and television roles and was the author of 14 books.
The song Thanks for the Memory is widely regarded as Hopes signature tune, born in Eltham, Kent, Hope arrived in America with his family at the age of four and grew up in Cleveland, Ohio. He began his career in business in the early 1920s, initially on stage. He was praised for his timing, specializing in one-liners and rapid-fire delivery of jokes. He also appeared in numerous specials for NBC television, starting in 1950, Hope participated in the sports of golf and boxing and owned a small stake in his hometown baseball team, the Cleveland Indians.
He died at age 100 at his home in Toluca Lake, Hope was born in Eltham, Kent the fifth of seven sons. They married in April 1891 and lived at 12 Greenwood Street in Barry, before moving to Whitehall, Bristol, and then St George, Bristol. In 1908, the family emigrated to the United States aboard the SS Philadelphia and passed through Ellis Island on March 30,1908, before moving to Cleveland, from age 12, Hope earned pocket money by busking, singing, dancing, and performing comedy. He entered many dancing and amateur talent contests and won a prize in 1915 for his impersonation of Charlie Chaplin, for a time, he attended the Boys Industrial School in Lancaster, Ohio.
As an adult, he donated sizable sums of money to the institution, Hope had a brief career as a boxer in 1919, fighting under the name Packy East. He had three wins and one loss and participated in a few staged charity bouts later in life, Hope worked as a butchers assistant and a lineman in his teens and early twenties. Hope also had a stint at Chandler Motor Car Company. Deciding on a business career, he and his girlfriend signed up for dancing lessons.
Encouraged after they performed in an engagement at a club, Hope formed a partnership with Lloyd Durbin. Silent film comedian Fatty Arbuckle saw them perform in 1925 and found work with a touring troupe called Hurleys Jolly Follies. Within a year, Hope had formed an act called the Dancemedians with George Byrne, Hope and Byrne had an act as a pair of Siamese twins as well and danced and sang while wearing blackface before friends advised Hope that he was funnier as himself.
In 1929, Hope informally changed his first name to Bob, in one version of the story, he named himself after racecar driver Bob Burman 4. – Ceremonial ship launching is the process of transferring a vessel to the water. It is a tradition in many cultures, dating back thousands of years.
It has been observed as a celebration and a solemn blessing. The process also involves many traditions intended to invite good luck, such as christening by breaking a bottle of champagne over the bow as the ship is named aloud. There are three methods of conveying a new ship from building site to water, only two of which are called launching. The oldest, most familiar, and most widely used is the launch, in which the vessel slides down an inclined slipway. With the side launch, the ship enters the water broadside and this method came into use in the 19th-century on inland waters, rivers, and lakes, and was more widely adopted during World War II. The third method is float-out, used for ships that are built in basins or dry docks and then floated by admitting water into the dock. In all cases, heavy chains are attached to the ship, normally, ways are arranged perpendicular to the shore line and the ship is built with its stern facing the water.
The barricades support the two launch ways, the vessel is built upon temporary cribbing that is arranged to give access to the hulls outer bottom and to allow the launchways to be erected under the complete hull. When it is time to prepare for launching, a pair of standing ways is erected under the hull, the surface of the ways is greased. A pair of sliding ways is placed on top, under the hull, the weight of the hull is then transferred from the build cribbing onto the launch cradle. On launching, the vessel slides backwards down the slipway on the ways until it floats by itself, some slipways are built so that the vessel is side-on to the water and is launched sideways.
This is done where the limitations of the channel would not allow lengthwise launching. The Great Eastern designed by Brunel was built this way as were many landing craft during World War II and this method requires many more sets of ways to support the weight of the ship. Sometimes ships are launched using a series of inflated tubes underneath the hull and this procedure has the advantages of requiring less permanent infrastructure, risk, and cost. The airbags provide support to the hull of the ship and aid its launching motion into the water and these airbags are usually cylindrical in shape with hemispherical heads at both ends. The Xiao Qinghe shipyard launched a tank barge with marine airbags on January 20,1981, egyptians, Greeks, and Romans called on their gods to protect seamen 5.
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– This is in contrast to lift-on/lift-off vessels, which use a crane to load and unload cargo. RORO vessels have either built-in or shore-based ramps that allow the cargo to be rolled on.
While smaller ferries that operate across rivers and other short distances often have built-in ramps, the ramps and doors may be located in stern, bow or sides, or any combination thereof. At first, wheeled vehicles carried as cargo on oceangoing ships were treated like any other cargo, automobiles had their fuel tanks emptied and their batteries disconnected before being hoisted into the ship’s hold, where they were chocked and secured. This process was tedious and difficult, and vehicles were subject to damage, an early roll-on/roll-off service was a train ferry, started in 1833 by the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway, which operated a wagon ferry on the Forth and Clyde Canal in Scotland. The first modern train ferry was Leviathan, built in 1849, the Edinburgh, Leith and Newhaven Railway was formed in 1842 and the company wished to extend the East Coast Main Line further north to Dundee and Aberdeen. The company hired the civil engineer Thomas Bouch who argued for a train ferry with an efficient roll-on/roll-off mechanism to maximise the efficiency of the system. Custom-built ferries were to be built, with lines and matching harbour facilities at both ends to allow the rolling stock to easily drive on and off the boat.
To compensate for the tides, adjustable ramps were positioned at the harbours. The wagons were loaded on and off with the use of steam engines.
”The company was persuaded to install this train ferry service for the transportation of goods wagons across the Firth of Forth from Burntisland in Fife to Granton. The ferry itself was built by Thomas Grainger, a partner of the firm Grainger and Miller, the service commenced on 3 February 1850. Train-ferry services were used extensively during World War I and this involved three train-ferries to be built, each with four sets of railway line on the main deck to allow for up to 54 railway wagons to be shunted directly on and off the ferry.
These train-ferries could also be used to transport vehicles along with railway rolling stock. Later that month a second train-ferry was established from the Port of Southampton on the South East Coast, in the first month of operations at Richborough,5,000 tons were transported across the Channel, by the end of 1918 it was nearly 261,000 tons. There were many advantages of the use of train-ferries over conventional shipping in World War I and it was much easier to move the large, heavy artillery and tanks that this kind of modern warfare required using train-ferries as opposed to repeated loading and unloading of cargo. The increase of traffic because of the war effort meant that economies. After the signing of the Armistice on 11 November 1918, train ferries were used extensively for the return of material from the Front, indeed, according to war office statistics, a greater tonnage of material was transported by train ferry from Richborough in 1919 than in 1918.
As the train ferries had space for motor transport as well as rolling stock, thousands of lorries, motor cars 6. – The United States Merchant Marine refers to either United States civilian mariners, or to U. Civilian and federally owned merchant vessels. Merchant Marine officers may also be commissioned as officers by the Department of Defense.
This is commonly achieved by commissioning unlimited tonnage Merchant Marine officers as Strategic Sealift Officers in the Naval Reserves. As of 31 December 2016, the United States merchant fleet had 175 privately owned, oceangoing, self-propelled vessels of 1,000 gross register tons, nearly 800 American-owned ships are flagged in other nations. In 2004, the government employed approximately 5% of all American water transportation workers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, various laws fundamentally changed the course of American merchant shipping and these laws put an end to common practices such as flogging and shanghaiing, and increased shipboard safety and living standards. The United States Merchant Marine is also governed by more than 25 international conventions to promote safety, the Court held that the Secretary of the Air Force abused its discretion in denying active military service recognition to American merchant seamen who participated in World War II. Captains, mates, and pilots supervise ship operations on domestic waterways, a captain is in overall command of a vessel, and supervises the work of other officers and crew. A captain has the ability to take the conn from a mate or pilot at any time he feels the need, on smaller vessels the captain may be a regular watch-stander, similar to a mate, directly controlling the vessels position.
Captains directly communicate with the company or command, and are responsible for cargo, various logs, ships documents, credentials, efforts at controlling pollution. Mates direct a ships routine operation for the captain during work shifts, mates stand watch for specified periods, usually in three duty sections, with 4 hours on watch and 8 hours off. When on a watch, mates direct a bridge team by conning, directing courses through the helmsman. When more than one mate is necessary aboard a ship, they typically are designated chief mate or first mate, second mate, in addition to watch standers, mates directly supervise the ships crew, and are assigned other tasks. The chief mate is usually in charge of cargo, stability and the crew, the second mate in charge of navigation plans and updates.
Harbor pilots guide ships in and out of confined waterways, such as harbors, harbor pilots are generally independent contractors who accompany vessels while they enter or leave port, and may pilot many ships in a single day. Ships engineers operate, maintain, and repair engines, boilers, generators, pumps, Merchant marine vessels usually have four engineering officers, a chief engineer and a first, second, and third assistant engineer. On many ships, Assistant Engineers stand periodic watches, overseeing the operation of engines. However, most modern ships sailing today utilize Unmanned Machinery Space automation technology, at night and during meals and breaks, the engine room is unmanned and machinery alarms are answered by the Duty Engineer.
List of current ships of the United States Navy The has approximately 480 ships in both active service and the reserve fleet, with approximately 70 more in either the planning and ordering stages or under construction, according to the and published reports. This list includes ships that are owned and leased by the U.S. Navy; ships that are formally, by way of ceremony, and non-commissioned. Ships denoted with the prefix 'USS' are commissioned ships. Prior to commissioning, ships may be described as a ' or PCU, but are officially referred to by name with no prefix. US Navy support ships are often non-commissioned ships organized and operated. Among these support ships, those denoted 'USNS' are owned by the US Navy.
Those denoted by 'MV' or 'SS' are chartered. Current ships include warships that are in active service, as well as ships that are part of, the support component and the Ready Reserve Force, that while non-commissioned, are still part of the effective force of the U.S. Future ships listed are those that are in the planning stages, or are currently under construction, from having its keel laid to fitting out and final sea trials. There exist a number of former US Navy ships which are (not listed here), some of which may be US government-owned. One of these, a three-masted, is one of the. It is the oldest naval vessel afloat, and still retains its commission (and hence is listed here), as a special commemoration for that ship alone.
Under sail for the first time in 116 years on 21 July 1997 Current ships Commissioned Ship name Hull no. Class Type Commission date Homeport Note CVN-72 11 November 1989 SSBN-731 25 May 1985 SSBN-732 25 January 1986 SSN-753 7 April 1990 SSN-757 29 June 1991 LHA-6 11 October 2014 LPD-23 4 May 2013 SSN-760 11 April 1992 CG-54 6 June 1987 CG-68 2 May 1992 MCM-12 18 February 1994, DDG-51 4 July 1991 LPD-24 6 April 2013 SSN-758 28 September 1991 LSD-48 9 May 1992 DDG-96 12 November 2005 DDG-52 12 December 1992 LHD-5 20 September 1997 DDG-65 30 March 1996 LCC-19 14 November 1970 Oldest deployed ship. SSN-764 7 November 1992 LHD-6 15 August 1998 LHD-4 11 February 1995 SSN-698 28 March 1981 Plan deactivated in 2018, to remain in service to 2019 SSN-715 5 November 1983 In Commission, in Reserve, commencement of inactivation availability, scheduled for decommissioning in 2018 DDG-84 8 December 2001 CG-52 20 September 1986 Scheduled for decommissioning in 2020. To be placed in the. SSN-781 29 October 2011 CG-71 12 June 1993 CVN-70 13 March 1982 DDG-64 13 April 1996 LSD-50 30 September 1995 DDG-90 18 October 2003 MCM-4 8 February 1991 CG-62 4 November 1989 SSN-766 16 September 1994 SSN-773 13 September 1996 SSN-721 27 September 1986 MCM-14 5 November 1994 PC-9 28 January 1995, CG-65 12 January 1991 DDG-93 18 September 2004 DDG-67 8 June 1996 SSN-788 17 March 2018 SSN-771 9 October 1995 SSN-762 24 July 1993 LSD-45 3 February 1990 SSN-22 11 December 1998 None 1 October 1797 The oldest commissioned vessel in the US Navy.
A and part of the Ship name Hull no. A non self-propelled and lead ship of her, moored alongside the. Ship name Hull no.
Class Type Note APL-2 APL-4 APL-5 APL-15 APL-18 APL-29 APL-32 APL-42 APL-45 APL-50 APL-58 APL-61 APL-62 APL-65 APL-66 ARDM-5 YTT-10 — C Champion MV C Commando — C Commando — C Ocean Trader MV Capt. Lyon T-AK-5362 Capt. An O-class, Ship name Hull no. Class Type Note T-AKR-1001 T-AKR-287 T-AKR-291 T-AKR-294 T-AKR-288 T-AKR-5054 T-AKR-5055 T-AKR-5053 T-AKR-5052 T-AKR-5051 AKR-5069 T-AK-5073 AK-5070 AK-5051 AK-2039 AKR-5067 AKR-5068 AKR-5066 T-AKR-5076 T-AKR-11 T-AKR-5062 T-AKR-10 T-AK-5029 T-AKR-5083 T-AKR-5082 T-AKR-5063 T-AKR-5065 T-AKR-2044 T-AKR-9960 T-AKR-9679 T-AKR-9678 T-AKR-113 T-AKR-112 T-AKR-9711 T-AKR-9701 T-AKR-9666 AKR-9961 T-AKR-9962 T-AKR-293 T-ACS-6 T-AVB-4 T-AKR-289 T-ACS-5 T-ACS-2 T-ACS-4 T-ACS-3 T-ACS-1 T-AOT-9101 T-AKR-290 T-AKR-292 T-AVB-3 Reserve fleet. An and the last active warship to serve in the Ship name Hull no. Class Type Berth Note T-AOE-10 LPD-7 LPD-9 LPD-8 LPD-10 SSN-701 To be converted to (MTS) LPD-13 LHA-4 Currently being sought for donation LHA-5 T-AOE-7 ARDM-10 Inactive currently leased to SSN-711 To be converted to (MTS) LHA-1 Currently being sought for donation Future ships Under construction Note: Ships listed here may be referred to as 'pre-commissioning unit' or 'PCU' in various sources including US Navy webpages.
While 'PCU' might be used informally as a prefix in some sources, it is not an official ship prefix. Ships listed here may be delivered to United States Navy but are not actively commissioned. A from and the of Ship name Hull no. Artist impression of Ship name Hull no. Class Type Note SSN-800 LCS-29 LCS-30 SSBN-826 T-AO-207 T-AO-206 DDG-126 T-AO-209 LCS-27 DDG-127 T-AO-208 LCS-32 T-AO-210 SSN-801 Unnamed CVN-81 Unnamed CVN-82 Unnamed SSN-802 Unnamed SSN-803 Unnamed SSN-804 Unnamed SSN-805 Unnamed DDG-128 Unnamed DDG-129 Unnamed DDG-130 Unnamed DDG-131 Unnamed DDG-133 Unnamed DDG-134 Unnamed DDG-135 Unnamed DDG-136 Unnamed DDG-137 Unnamed DDG-138 Unnamed LCS-34 Unnamed YT-808 YT-808 Unnamed YT-809 YT-808 Unnamed YT-810 YT-808 Unnamed YT-811 YT-808 Unnamed T-EPF-13 Unnamed T-EPF-14 Unnamed LHA-9 Unnamed LHA-10 Fleet totals. A (artist's impression) Ready Reserve Force ships (MV, SS, GTS).
– 2. – 5 ( of 6). – 6.
– 1 ( of 7). – 37 ( of 56) Reserve Fleet ships (USS, USNS). – 3. – 5. – 5. – 2 ( of 4). 1 Ships under construction.
– 2. – 2. – 2. – 10. – 11. – 3. – 1.
– 14. – 1 Ordered ships. – 2. – 2. – 6.
– 1. – 12. 2. 4. – 5. – 5 Totals Commissioned: 247, Non-commissioned: 105, Support: 63, Ready Reserve Force: 52.
Reserve Fleet: 12. Grand total: 482 (Not included in 'grand total' - Under construction: 46, On order: 39).
Note See also. (includes current and former USN ships). (includes current and former USCG Cutters) Notes and references. ^. Naval History and Heritage Command.
Retrieved 24 July 2016. The prefix 'USS,' meaning 'United States Ship,' is used in official documents to identify a commissioned ship of the Navy. It applies to a ship while she is in commission.
Before commissioning, or after decommissioning, she is referred to by name, with no prefix. Homeport as listed at the. Hinton, Daniel (6 April 2018).
Submarine Force Pacific. Retrieved 5 January 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2018. 3 April 2015. Defense Visual Information Distribution Service. Retrieved 5 January 2018. ^.
Retrieved 2018-11-23. Retrieved 1 December 2018. Retrieved 2017-06-02. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
Retrieved 2 April 2018. (Press release). United States Navy. 11 July 2003.
Retrieved 16 February 2018. Naval Vessel Register. 12 December 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2018. (Press release). United States Navy.
Retrieved 24 July 2016. (Press release). Huntington Ingalls Industries. 16 October 2018. (PDF) (Press release). Bath Iron Works.
31 March 2016. (Press release). United States Navy. Retrieved 15 May 2018. (Press release). Huntington Ingalls Industries. 21 July 2015.
(Press release). Huntington Ingalls Industries. 19 December 2016. (Press release).
United States Navy. (Press release). United States Navy. 21 September 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
(Press release). Huntington Ingalls Industries. 30 March 2016. ^ (Press release). United States Navy.
22 September 2016. (Press release). United States Navy. 4 November 2017. Retrieved 12 March 2018. (Press release).
United States Navy. 30 July 2018. ^ (Press release). United States Navy. 13 February 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
^ (Press release). United States Navy. 18 September 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
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23 February 2018. Retrieved 23 February 2018. (Press release). United States Navy. 14 December 2016. 30 June 2016.
United States Navy. 12 March 2018.
Retrieved 12 March 2018. (Press release). United States Navy. 19 January 2016. ^ O'Rourke, Ronald (9 August 2017). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
16 February 2017. Retrieved 25 December 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018. ^ (Press release). United States Department of Defense. 13 July 2018.
Archived from on 2018-07-16. Retrieved 15 July 2018. 15 February 2018.
Retrieved 9 November 2018. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
13 October 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2018. Naval Vessel Register. Retrieved 19 December 2017. Naval Vessel Register. This article includes information collected from the, which, as a U.S.
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Government publication, is in the. External links., detailed graphic, introduced by.